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This site is a spot-light on the manufacturing of Portland cement by dry process! And it’s related activates in addition to environmental impacts of this industry.
Many people have claimed to have made the first Portland cement in the modern sense, but it is generally accepted that it was first manufactured by William Aspdin at Northfleet, England in about 1842.(1)
But this is not the complete story, during “Paleolithic era”, shelters were provided by mother-earth to protect mankind from weather conditions and wild animals in the caves, with passage of time human started to construct artificial shelters using available materials.
The world's oldest artificial structure on a hillside at Chichibu, north of Tokyo; the structure took the form of ten post holes drilled into solid rock. The ten holes were arranged in two roughly pentagonal shapes, indicating that poles inserted into the holes formed the superstructures of two huts. Stone tools were also found at the site, which was given an age of 500,000 years!
Even so, a few examples of Paleolithic houses exist, although they only come to light very recently in the Paleolithic era, no more than 200,000 years ago. These "houses" are more frequently campsites within caves or in the open air, with little in the way of formal structures for living in. However, as the Paleolithic era progressed, dwellings became more sophisticated, more elaborate, and more house-like. The oldest examples are shelters within caves, followed by houses of wood, straw and rock; a few examples exist of houses built out of bones.(2)
Later mankind started to manufacture construction materials to fulfill his requirement; lime mortar, around 11000 BC according to archaeo-logical ﬁnds found upon the French Polynesian island of Kuni in the 1960s, On this island were 400 plus tumuli (earthen mounds) that were excavated and were found, each contains a cylinder made of hard lime mortar ranging from 4 inches wide to 2 feet wide, with the largest being 7 feet in length. The mortar, which was seen to contain shells, iron fragments and gravel.(3)
The accumulation of human knowledge since that time lead to “Portland Cement”
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